Friday, October 26, 2012

Terms and Definitions


Terms
Definitions
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifbasic structure of a protein
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- string of amino acids
20 amino acids long
100-300 amino acids long
hooked by peptide bonds
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the building blocks of protein?
1.Primary structure- sequence of amino acids.

2. secondary- bending of amino acids close to each other. ex Alpha- HELIX!*

3. Tertiary structure- bending and folding of amino acids that are far apart.: sheets, folds, globules**

4. Quarternary- functional form found in hemoglobin. bent inorder to transport hemoglobin
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifhow can protein be denatured?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- cooking an egg
- sterilizing instruments
- high fever
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifdenaturing agents
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- heat
-acids
- bases
- alcohol
- heavy metals
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifnegative nitrogen balance
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- More nitrogen excreted than consumed
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifPositive nitrogen balance
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- more nitrogen consumed than excreted
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifDefine reference protein, give ex
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifstandard against which all other proteins are measured
EGG= 100 biological value
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are Complete proteins: and where are they found?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- high quality proteins
- contain all 9 essential amino acids

found in: almost all animal products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, soy
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are incomplete proteins and where r they found
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- low quality proteins
- lacking some essential amino acids or sufficient amounts

found in: Legumes, beans, peas, nuts, grains
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giflimiting amino acid
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- inadequate amount of a certain essential amino acid
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is the limited amino acid in corn?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifLYSINE
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is the limited amino acid in beans?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifMETHIONINE
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the protein requirements for most people?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif10-15% of cal.
46-56 g/ day
2-3 servings/day
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifprotein- energy malnutrition
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifdeficient in protein and calories
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsymptoms of Kwashiorkar
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif-Edema of abdomen and face
-scaly, patchy skin.
-change in color and texture of hair
- decreased immune response
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifSymptoms of Marasmus
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- appears old and shriveled
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifOral effects of protein deficiency
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- smaller teeth
- delayed eruption
- delayed exfoliation
- smaller mandible
- smaller salivary glands
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the 4 types of vegetarian diets and what are they
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. Vegan- strictest. only plants

2. Lactovegetarian- Plants and dairy products only,.

3. Ovovegetarian- Only plant products and eggs

4. Ovolactovegetarian- Eggs, dairy and plants!
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifcomplementation and how does it relate to vegetarianism
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifcombining protein sources to ensure adequte protein quality

- when eating together get all 9 essential amino acids that vegetarians may not be able to get easily
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is the role of vitamins in metabolic reactions
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifcatalyst for all metabolic reactions that use protein, fats, carbs
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat factors increase vitamin requirements?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- alcohol
-caffeine
- drug use, oral contraceptive
- stress
- periods of rapid growth, surgery, burns
- illness
- fever
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is the most likely way a person get vitamin overdose?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsupplements
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhere are fat soluble and water soluble vitamins absorbed?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsmall intestine
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giffat soluble vitamins are transported via?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giflymphatic system
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwater soluble vit are transported via?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifportal system
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhere are water soluble vitamins stored?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- nowhere, cant be stored. gets excreted in urine
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhere are fat soluble vitamins stored
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif-liver and other fatty tissues
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is a free radical
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- unstable O2 with unpaired electron
- produced by all cells that use O2
- associated with production of cancer cells and effects of aging
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifAntioxidant
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifPrevents cell membrane damage
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhy do we want antioxidants in our diet?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- fights off free radicals
- slows down aging process
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifhow does Vitamin E affect nitrites in cured meat?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifInhibits conversions of nitrites
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifdeficiency in Vit E is rare, what 2 groups may show deficiency?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- premature infants*
- those with Fat malabsortion syndrome*
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat 3 compounds make vitamin K and where do we get them from
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- K1: green leafy veg
- K2: microflora
- K3: synthetic supplements
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the scorbutic changes that affect teeth from vitamin C deficiency?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- irregular dentin or lacking dentin
- enlarged pulp
-Gingivitis
- tooth loss, mobility, resorption of bone
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifhow many B vitamins?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif8
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhy are the B vitamins known as "energy- releasing vitamins"?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- they are enzymes and coenzymes during Krebs cycle-
- product ATP!
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifdo B vitamins reach toxic level in body? why?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifNO because its a water soluble vitamin, excreted in urine, no storage
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the basic characteristics of B vitamin deficiency?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- glossitis
- angular cheilosis
- dementia
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat group of ppl are most likely to show deficiencies of B vitamins?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- alcoholics
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the 2 steps in bone formation? which nutrients needed in each step
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. Development of protein matrix: need Vitamins C, D, K, and protein

2. Mineralization of Collagen: need Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, *HYDROXYAPATITE
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the 2 most abundant minerals in body, where are they found?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifCalcium- MOST ABUNDANT! found in: bone, teeth, skull

Phosphorus: 2nd. found : 85% in skeleton, teeth
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat 4 things enhance absorption of calcium?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. Vitamin D*
2. Phosphorus*
3. Hydrochloric Acid- in stomach*
4. Lactose*
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat causes increase need for calcium?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- growth periods : 0-2 yrs old, puberty
- alcoholism
- smoking
- excess caffeine
- lactose intolerance
- menopause
- lack of exercise
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat 2 hormones regulate serum calcium level? what are their roles
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. Parathyroid hormone- INCREASES serum calcium

2. Calcitonin- DECREASES serum calcium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is the relationship of calcium and phosphorus in blood?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif*CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ARE INVERSELY RELATED
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat ratio should calcium and phosphorus be consumed?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1:1
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifhow does osteoporosis occur?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giftoo little calcium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giffoods high in phosphorus are usually high in what 2 other nutrients?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif*CALCIUM AND PROTEIN!!!*!!
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifname food sources of Magnesium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifgreen leafy vegetables
Antacids and laxatives!
- bananas
- whole grain products, nuts, seeds, beans
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif4 functions of magnesium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. needed for healthy heart
2. needed for bone mineralizatio
3. Maintaining calcium balance
4. nerve transmission
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifMagnesium is part of what molecule?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif**CHLOROPHYLL MOLECULE**
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are the systemic actions of fluoride?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- replaces hydroxyl ions in Hydroxyapatite, results in FLUORAPATITE*
- more resistant to acid demineralization
- increases strength of bones
- *TEETH HAVE ROUNDED CUSPS, SHALLOWER FISSUES, WIDER SURFACE
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giftopical action of fluoride
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- inhibits acid demineralization
- promotes remineralization
- interferes with formation and function of acidogenic bacteria: STREP MUTANS and LACTOBACILLI!*
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsources of fluoride in our diet
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwater
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is recommended amount of fluoride in drinking water
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif.7 ppm (part per million)
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsigns of mild fluorosis
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- occurs at 2-3 ppm
- white, opaque flacks or extremely white enamel
- teeth are caries resistant
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsigns of severe fluorosis
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- occurs are 4 or more ppm
- brownish discoloration of teeth
- enamel pitting
- INCREASED CARIES RATE
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat is most cost effective way to prevent caries?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- fluoride in water
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifname 4 methods of water loss
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. RESPIRATION
2. EXPIRATION- from lungs and skin
3. urination
4. defecation
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giffunctions of ADH
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- help conserve water
- decrease urine output which increases fluid volume
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifADH output is inhibited when ..?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giffluid levels are too high
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.giffunctions of Aldosterone
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- sodium and water retention
- causes B volume to increase due tro retention of water
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifFluid Volume Excess
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif-excess water
- due to increase sodium
- extracellular fluids
- caused by diuretics or sodium restricted diet
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifFluid Volume deficit
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifDehydration
- excess loss of fluid from GI tract
- symptoms: weight loss, fatigue, confusion, low B/P, fissured tongue, xerostoma, poor fitting dentures
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhich electrolytes are present in intracellular fluid and which are in extracellular fluid?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifintracellular- potassium (K+) Phosphate (PO3)

extracellular- Sodium (Na+) Chloride (CL-)
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhich electrolytes are positive
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifPotassium and Sodium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhich electrolytes are negative
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifPhosphate and Chloride
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifSodium and Potassium are important in what 2 things?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif*NERVE TRANSMISSION AND MUSCLE CONTRACTION*
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifWhat is the max RDA for salt?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif2,400mg/ day
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifhow much sodium is present in 1tsp of salt?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif*2,000mg*
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsymptoms of deficiency of potassium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- anorexia
- muscle weakness
- cardiac/ respiratory arrest
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifanother name for potassium deficiency
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifHypokalemia
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsymptoms of excess of potassium
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- confusion
- muscle weakness
- cardiac arrest
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhere is chloride found in the body?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifgastric secretions
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifHeme Iron
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- found in animal products!
- easily absorbed
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifnon- heme Iron
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- PLANTS & animal products!
- less well absorbed
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat 2 things enhance iron absorption?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif-**Vitamin C
-** HCL
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat are some reasons for iron deficiency?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif1. *Overuse of antacids
2. *Decrease production of gastric acid
3. *lead poisoning
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifIron deficiency anemia
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- Microcytic hypochromic anemia
- world wide problem
symptoms: tachycardia, fatigue, headache, dizziness
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifHHC
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif"Hereditary Hemochromatosis"
- Iron overload disease
- most common genetic disease in US (1:8)
- causes skin pigmentation
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsymptoms of deficiency of Zinc?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- CLEFT LIP AND PALATE
- LOSS OF TASTE, SMELL, poor appetite, impaired wound healing
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifwhat hormone is Iodine a part of and what does it regulate?
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifTHYROXINE- regulates BASAL METABOLIC RATE
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifsymptoms of iodine deficiency
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gif- lower metabolic rate
- depression or mental functions
- Goiter
- Cretinism
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifdifference between Cretinism and Graves' disease
Description: http://b.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.99q4.gifCretinism is from DEFICIENCY of IODINE during fetal development

Graves' disease is from TOXICITY of IODINE



------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123 Email:ehab10f@gmail.com,ehababoueladab@yahoo.com ------------------------------------------
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