Monday, October 22, 2012

Normal Laboratory Reference Values

                    [Blood (B), Serum (S), Plasma (P),Urine (U)]
Blood Gases
pH
(B- Arterial) 7.35 – 7.45 (H+44.7-45.5 nmol/L)
 Partial pressure of CO
 ( PaCO2)
(B-Arterial) 35 – 45mm Hg(4.7-6 kPa
Partial pressure of O2(PaO)
(B-Arterial 80) – 100mm Hg(10.67-13.33kPa)
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
24-28 meq/L(24-28 mmol/L)
O2 Sat %( Arterial)
90-95
O2 Sat %( Venous)
40-70
COcontent
Total Serum  21-30 mmol/L
CO
<5% of Hemoglobin
Anion gap
7–16 mmol/L
Hematology
Hemoglobin
(B)Men-14-18g/dl (2.09-2.79mmol/L)
Women-12 – 16 g/dL (1.86-2.48 mmol/L)
(S) 2-3mg/dl
Haemtocrit (PCV)
Men 40 – 52% (0.4-0.52)
Women 37 – 47%(0.37-0.47)
 Red Blood Count (RBC)
Men-4.5-6.2million/μl(4.5-6.2×1012/L)
Women-4-5.5million/μl(4-5.5×1012/L)
Reticulocytes
0.2-2% of red cells
White blood Count(WBC)
5000-10,000/ μl (5-10×109/L)
  • Polymorph nuclear (PMN): 35-80%
  • Immature Polys (Bands): 0-10%
  • Lymphocytes (Lymp): 20-50%
  • Monocytes (Mono): 2-12%
  • Eosinophils (Eos): 0-7%
  • Basophils (Bas): 0-2%
Platelets
150,000-400,000/ μL(0.15-0.4×1012/L)
Mean Corpuscular volume(MCV)
Men-80-94f L
Women-81-99f L (By coulter counter)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin(MCH)
27-32pg
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration(MCHC)
32-36g/dl, red blood cells (32-36%)
Average diameter of red cell
7.3μm(5.5-8.8 μm)
Bleeding time
Ivy method, 1-7 minutes(60-420 seconds)
Template method, 3-9 minutes (180-540seconds).
Clot retraction
Begins in 1-3 hrs: complete in 6-24 hrs. No clot lysis in 24 hours.
Fragility of red cells
Begins at 0.45-0.38%NaCl, complete at 0.36-0.3% NaCl
Partial Thromboplastin time
Activated, 25-37seconds
Prothrombin Time
(P)11-14.5 seconds, International Normalized Ratio(INR)- (P)2.0-3.0
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR or Sed-Rate)
Male: 1 – 13 mm/hr
Female
: 1 – 20 mm/hr
Blood Volume
8.5 – 9.1% of total body weight
Endocrines
Adrenals hormones
Cortisol
(P) 8.00 AM, 5-25μg/dl(138-690nmol/L)
8.00 PM<10 μg/dl(275 nmol/l)
Aldosterone
(P)  Supine 2-9 ng/dl (56-250 pmol/L)Increased when upright
Dopamine
(P) <135 pg/ml
Epinephrine
(P)Supine,<100 pg/ml(<550pmol/l)
Nor Epinephrine
(P)Supine,<500 pg/ml(<3nmol/l)
Adrenal hormones and metabolites
Aldosterone
(U)2-26μg/24 hrs (5.5-72 nmol/d), values vary with sodium and potassium intake
Catecholamines
(U)Total,<100 μg//24 hrs
Epinephrine
(U)<10 μg//24 hrs(<100 nmol/d)
Nor Epinephrine
(U)<100 μg//24 hrs(<590nmol/d)
Cortisol
Free(U)-20-100 μg//24 hrs(0.55-2.76μmol/d)
11,17 OH corticoids
(U)Men-4-12mg/24 hrs
Women-4-8mg/24 hrs
17- keto steroids
(U)< 8 Years 0-2mg/24 hrs
Adolescents-2-20mg/24 hrs(1mg=3.5μmol)
Metanephrine
(U)<1.3 mg/24 hrs(<6.6 μmol/d) or <2.2μg/mg creatinine
Vanillyl Mandelic acid(VMA)
(U)Up to 7 mg/24 hrs(< 35 μmol/d)
Pituitary
Growth hormone(GH)
(S) Adults, 1-10 ng/ml, (46-465 pmol/L) by RIA
Thyroid Stimulating hormone(TSH)
(S) < 10μU/ ml
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
(S) Pre pubertal-, 2-12 m IU/ml
Adult men- 1-15 m IU/ml
Adult Women-1-30 m IU/ml
Luteinizing hormone(LH)
(S) Pre pubertal-, 2-12 m IU/ml
Adult men- 1-15 m IU/ml
Adult Women-< 30 m IU/ml
Corticotropin (ACTH)
(P) 8.00-10.00 AM, up to 100pg/ml, (22pmol/L)
Prolactin
(S) 1-25ng/ml (0.4-10 nmol/L)
Somatomedin C
(P) 0.4-2U/ml
Anti diuretic Hormone (ADH, Vasopressin)
(P)Serum osmolality285 mosm/kg, 0-2 pg/ml; >290 mosm/kg. 2-12 + pg/ml
Placenta
Estriol(E3)
(S) Men and non pregnant women <0.2μg/dl (<7nmol/L) by RIA
Chorionic Gonadotropin
(S) Beta subunit; Men-< 9 mIU/ mL
Pregnant Women->10 mIU/ mL
Gonads
Testosterone, free
(S) Men, 10-30 ng/dl; Women 0.3-2 ng/dl. (1ng/dl=0.035nmol/L)
Testosterone, Total
(S) Pre pubertal , < 100 ng/dl ; Adult men, 300-1000 ng/dl; Adult women 20-80 ng/dl, luteal phase up to 120 ng/dl
Estradiol(E2)
(S) Men- 12-34 pg/ml;
women, menstrual cycle 1-10 days 24-68 pg/ml
11-20 days, 50-300 pg/ml
21-30 days, 73-149 pg/ml by RIA, (Ipg/ml=3.6 pmol/L)
Progesterone
(S) Follicular phase, 0.2-1.5 ng/ml
luteal phase, 6-32 ng/ml;
Pregnancy,>24 ng/ml,
Men, < 1ng/ml= 3.2 nmol/L
Thyroid
Thyroxin, free T4 (FT4)
(S) 0.8-2.4ng/dl (10-30 p mol/L)
Thyroxin, Total (TT4)
(S) 5-12 μg/dl(65-156nmol/L) by RIA
Thyroxin binding globulin capacity
(S) 12-28 μg T4/dl (150-360 nmol T4/dl)
Tri iodo thyronine (T3)
(S) 80-220 ng/dl (1.2-3.3 nmol/L)
Reverse Tri iodo thyronine (r T3)
(S) 30-80 ng/dl (0.45-1.2 nmol/L)
Tri iodo thyronine uptake(RT3U)
(S) 25-36% as TBG assessment(RT3U ratio) 0.85-1.15
Calcitonin
(S)<100 pg/ml (< 29.2pmol/L)
Islets
Insulin
(S) 4-25μU/mL(29-181pmol/L)
C- peptide
(S) 0.9-4.2ng/mL
Glucagon
(S), fasting) 20-100pg/mL
Parathyroid
Parathyroid hormone (intact)
(S)8–51 pg/mL.
Stomach
Gastrin
(S) up to 100 pg/ml (47 p mol/L).
Elevated, > 200 pg/ml
Pepsinogen I
(S) 25-100 ng/ml

Iron Studies

Ferritin
Adult Women- 20-120ng/ml
Men-30-300ng/ml
Child-15 years-7-140ng/ml
Iron
(S) 50-175 μg/dl(9-31.3 μmol/L)
Iron Binding capacity
(S)Total- 250-410 μg/dl(44.7-73.4μmol/L)
% saturation- 20-55%
Transferrin
(S) 200-400 mg/dl(23-45μmol/L)
Haptoglobin
(S) 40-170mg of Hb binding capacity
Blood Chemistry
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) SGPT
0-45 IU/L at 37°C
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) SGOT
0-41 IU/L at 37°C
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
(S) Adults- 5-13 units(KA), 0.8-2.3(Bessey- Lowry):SMA 30-85 IU/L at 37°C: SMAC 30-115IU/L at 37°C
Amylase
(S)- 80-180 units/dl (Somogyi)
Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase
(S) <30 units/L at 30°C
Lipase
(S) <150 units/L
Acid phosphatase
(S)- 1-5 U(KA),0.1-0.63U(Bessey- Lowry)
Total Creatine Kinase (Total CK)
(S)-10-50 IU/L at 30°C
Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB)
0-3%
Creatine Kinase-MM (CK-MM)
97-100%
Creatine Kinase-BB (CK-BB)
0%
Lactate dehydrogenase
(S)-55-140 IU/L at 30°C
Aldolase
(S) 1.5-2.0 U/L
Troponin
<0.4 ng/ml
5′ Nucleotidase
0–11 U/L
Anti-streptolysin O Titer (ASO)
Adult:
<125
Child:
<250
Glucose
(S or P) 65-110 mg/dl(3.6-6.1 mmol/l)
Impaired glucose tolerance
111–125 mg/dL (6.2–6.9 mmol/L)
Diabetes mellitus
>125 mg/dL(>7.0 mmol/L)
Glucose, 2 h postprandial
70–120 mg/dL(3.9–6.7 mmol/L)
Fructosamine
<285 μ mol/L
Hemoglobin Alc
4.0–6.0%
Urea Nitrogen
(S or P) 8-25 mg/dl (2.9-8.9 mmol/)
Creatinine
(S or P) 0.7-1.5 mg/dl (62-132μmol/)
Uric acid
(S or P) Men-3-9 mg/dl(0.18-0.54 mmol/)
Women-2.5-7.5 mg/dl(0.15-0.45 mmol/)
Bicarbonate
(S) 24-28 meq/L(24-28mmol/L)
Potassium
(S or P) 3.5-5 meq/L (3.5-5 mmol/L)
Sodium
(S or P) 136-145 meq/L (136-145mmol/L)
Chloride
(S or P) 96-106 meq/L( 96-106mmol/L)
Magnesium
(S or P)1.8-3 mg/dl(0.75- 1.25mmol/L)
Copper
(S or P) 100-200μg/dl(16-31 μmol/L)
Zinc
(S) 50-150 μg/dl (7.65-22.95 μmol/L)
Phosphorus, inorganic
(S –fasting) 3-4.5 mg/dl (1-1.5mmol/L)
Calcium
(S) 8.5-10.3 mg/dl (2.1-2.6mmol/L)
Calcium (ionized)
(S) 4.25-5.25 mg/dl; 2.1-2.6 meq/L (1.05-1.3 mmol/L)
Lead
(U)< 80 μg/24 hrs (< 0.4μmol/d)
Pyruvate
(B) 0.6-1 mg/dl (70-114 μmol/L)
Lactate
(B) Venous-, 4-16 mg/dl, (0.44-1.8mmol/L)
Ketone (acetone)
(S)Negative
Acetone and Acetoacetate
(S) 0.3-2 mg/dl (3-20 mg/L)
β-Hydroxybutyrate
(S)0–3 mg/dL(0–290 μmol/L)
Serum Total Protein
(S) 6-8g/dl (60-80 g/L)
Albumin
(S) 3.5 -5.5 g/dl (35-55 g/L)
Prealbumin
170–340 mg/L
Globulins
(S)2-3.6 g/dl ( 20-36 g/L)
Fibrinogen
(P) 0.2-0.6 g/dl (2-6 g/L)
Homocysteine
4.4–10.8 μmol/L
α1 –Antitrypsin
(S)> 180 mg/dl
C-reactive protein
0.2–3.0 mg/L
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)
0 – 4 ng/mL (likely higher with age)
Ceruloplasmin
(S) 25-43mg/dl (1.7-2.9μ mol/L)
Bilirubin
(S) Total, 0.2-1.2 mg/dl (3.5-20.5 μ mol/L)
Direct- (Conjugated), 0.1-0.4 mg/dl (<7 μ mol/L)
Indirect, 0.2-0.7 mg/dl (<12 μ mol/L)
Urobilinogen
(U) 0-2.5mg/24 hrs (70-470 μ mol/d)
Urobilinogen(Fecal)
40-280 mg/24 hrs (70-470 μ mol/d)
Porphyrins
Delta Amino Levulinic acid (U)
Prophobilinogen (U)
1.5-7.5 mg/24 hrs (11-57 μ mol/d)
< 2 mg/24 hrs (<8.8 μ mol/d)
Ammonia
(P) 10-80 μg/dl
Osmolality
(S) 280-296mosm/kgwater (280-296 mmol/kg water)
Specific Gravity
(B) 1.056(Varies with Hb and protein concentration)
(S) 1.0254- 1.0288(varies with protein concentration)
Fecal Fat
<30% dry weight
Lipid profile
Cholesterol mg/dL (mmol/L) 
(S or P) 150-250 mg/dl (3.9- 5.72 mmol/L)
<200 (<5.17)- desirable
 200–239 (5.17–6.18) –borderline high
>240 (>6.21) - high
Triglycerides
(S)< 165 mg/dl (1.9 mmol/L)
Lipid fractions
Desirable levels
HDL Cholesterol mg/dL(mmol/L)  
<40 (60 (>1.55)- high
LDL Cholesterol mg/dL(mmol/L) 
i) <70 (<1.81)
-Therapeutic option for very high risk patients
 ii) <100 (<2.59)
-Optimal
iii) 100–129
    (2.59 –3.34)
 -  Near optimal/above   optimal
 iv) 130–159
   (3.36– 4.11)
-Borderline high
 v)  160–189               (4.14–4.89)
-High
  vi) >190 (4.91)
-Very high
VLDL Cholesterol
<40 mg/dl
Free fatty acid
(P) 200-800μmol/L
Lipoprotein (a)
0–30 mg/dL
Vitamins
Vitamin A
(S) 15-60 μg/dl (0.53-2.1 μmol/L)
β Carotene
(S) Fasting) 50-300 μg/dl
Vitamin B12
(S)> 200 pg/ml (>148 pmol/L)
Vitamin D
(S) Cholecalciferol (D3); 25- hydroxy cholecalciferol, 8- 55 ng/ml (19.4-137 nmol/L);
1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol, 26-65 pg/ml (62-155pmol/L);24,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol,
1-5ng/ml (2.4-12 nmol/L).
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
(P) 0.4-1.5 mg/dl (23-85μmol/L)
Folic acid
(S) 14-34 nmol/L
Vitamin E
(S) 5–18 μg/mL(12–42μ mol/L)
Vitamin K
(S) 0.13–1.19 ng/mL(0.29–2.64 nmol/L)
Vitamin B6
(P) 5–30 ng/mL(20–121 nmol/L)
Immunoglobulins
Ig A
9.0-33 g/L
Ig G
7.2-15.0 g/L
Ig M
0.5-2.5 g/L
Ig D
0-0.4 g/L
Ig E
100-200 μg/L
Renal function Tests
p- Amino Hippurate(PAH)  clearance (RPF)
Men, 560-830 ml/min,
Women, 490-700 ml/min.
Creatinine Clearance, endogenous (GFR)
Men, 110-150 ml/min.
Women, 105-132 ml/min.
Inulin clearance
Approximately same as creatinine( corrected to 1.73 msurface area
Filtration fraction(FF)
Men-17-21%; women, 17-23 %(FF=GFR/RPF)
Osmolality
(U)On normal diet and fluid intake: Range 500-850 mOsm/kg water. Achievable range, normal kidney: Dilution 40-80 mOsm; concentration(dehydration) up to 1400 mOsm/kg water(At least three to four times plasma osmolality)
Specific gravity of urine
1.003-1.030
Urinalysis
Urine volume
 0.4 -2.0 L/day.   
Urine pH
5-7
Acidity, titratable
20–40 meq/d(20–40 mmol/d)
Ammonia
30–50 meq/d(30–50 mmol/d)
Specific Gravity
1.002-1.030
Urine Ketone
Negative
Urine blood
Negative
Urine Proteins
Negative
Urine Nitrites
Negative, Traces
Urine Bilirubin
Negative
Urobilinogen
0-2.5mg/24 hrs
Urine Micro
  • RBCs: 0-2/HPF
  • WBCs: 0-2/HPF
  • RBC Casts: 0/HPF
Urine Glucose
< 250mg/dl
Urine Creatinine
Men-1.0-2.0 g/d
Women-0.8-1.8 g/d
Urea nitrogen
6–17 g/d(214–607 mmol/d)
Uric acid (normal diet)
250–800 mg/d(214–607 mmol/d)
Sodium (varies with intake)
100–260 meq/d(100–260 mmol/d)
Potassium (varies with intake)
25–100 meq/d(25–100 mmol/d)
Phosphate (phosphorus) (varies with intake)
400–1300 mg/d(12.9–42.0 mmol/d)
Micro albumin
 Normal
0–30 mg/d(0.0–0.03 g/d)
Microalbuminuria
30–300 mg/d(0.03–0.30 g/d)
Clinical albuminuria
>300 mg/d(>0.3 g/d)
Micro albumin/creatinine ratio
 Normal
0–30 μg/mg creatinine(0–3.4 g/mol creatinine)
Microalbuminuria
30–300 μg/mg creatinine(3.4–34 g/mol creatinine)
Clinical albuminuria
>300μg/mg creatinine(>34 g/mol creatinine)

Cerebral Spinal Fluid

Pressure

60-150 mm Hg

Specific gravity

1.006 to 1.007

p H

7.3
CSF glucose
45-100 mg/dl
CSF Proteins
10-45 mg/dl
CSF Chlorides
700-760 mg/dl (120-130 meq/L) as NaCl
CSF urea
20-40 mg/dl
CSF Calcium
5.5-6 mg /dl
CSF cells
0-4 mononuclear per C.mm
TERMINOLOGY:
UNITS:
Gram:common measurement of weight. Used in this table: pg (picograms), g (grams), mg(milligrams), etc. per liter
micrometer (µm) : a unit of length. Mean Corpuscular Volume is expressedin cubic micrometers
mole: also “gram molecular weight,” a quantity based on the atomicweight of the substance. Many test results in the System Internationale areexpressed as the number of moles per liter. In US units, these measurements areusually in grams per liter. Used in this table: mmol (millimoles), µmol,(micromoles), nmol (nanomoles), pmol (picomoles) per liter
Some units of measurement include the following fractions and multipliers:
mega (M) : 10 6 or x1,000,000
kilo (k) : 10 3 or x1,000
deca or deka : 10 1 or x10
deci (d) : 10 -1 or ÷10
milli (m) : 10 -3 or ÷1,000
micro (µ) : 10 -6 or ÷1,000,000
nano (n) : 10 -9 or ÷1,000,000,000
pico (p) : 10 -12or ÷1,000,000,000,000


------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123 Email:ehab10f@gmail.com,ehababoueladab@yahoo.com ------------------------------------------
Post a Comment