Monday, November 5, 2012

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------

Funding News Email Updates - Fogarty International Center @ NIH

Funding News Email Updates - Fogarty International Center @ NIH

------------------------------------------Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------


------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------

Abou-Eladab EF

1: Jagannadham MV, Abou-Eladab EF, Kulkarni HM. Identification of outer membrane
proteins from an Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W. Mol Cell
Proteomics. 2011 Jun;10(6):M110.004549. Epub 2011 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 21447709;
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3108833.

2: Brandt B, Abou-Eladab EF, Tiedge M, Walzel H. Role of the JNK/c-Jun/AP-1
signaling pathway in galectin-1-induced T-cell death. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e23.
PubMed PMID: 21364631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3032336.

3: Brandt B, Büchse T, Abou-Eladab EF, Tiedge M, Krause E, Jeschke U, Walzel H.
Galectin-1 induced activation of the apoptotic death-receptor pathway in human
Jurkat T lymphocytes. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008 May;129(5):599-609. Epub 2008 Feb
21. PubMed PMID: 18288482.

4: Walzel H, Fahmi AA, Eldesouky MA, Abou-Eladab EF, Waitz G, Brock J, Tiedge M.
Effects of N-glycan processing inhibitors on signaling events and induction of
apoptosis in galectin-1-stimulated Jurkat T lymphocytes. Glycobiology. 2006
Dec;16(12):1262-71. Epub 2006 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 16917081.

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------

Galectin-1 induced activation of the apoptotic death-receptor pathway in human Jurkat T lymphocytes

Galectin-1 induced activation of the apoptotic death-receptor pathway in human Jurkat T lymphocytes
B Brandt, T Büchse, EF Abou-Eladab, M Tiedge, E Krause, U Jeschke, H Walzel
Histochemistry and cell biology 129 (5), 599-609

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------

Galectin-1 induced activation of the apoptotic death-receptor pathway in human Jurkat T lymphocytes

Galectin-1 induced activation of the apoptotic death-receptor pathway in human Jurkat T lymphocytes
Bettina Brandt, Tom Büchse, Ehab Fathi Abou-Eladab, Markus Tiedge, Eberhard Krause, Udo Jeschke, Hermann Walzel
Publication date
Journal name
Histochemistry and cell biology
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Abstract Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the family of ?-galactoside binding proteins,
participates in several biological processes such as immunomodulation, cell adhesion,
regulation of cell growth and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gal-
1 interferes with the Fas (Apo-1/CD95)-associated apoptosis cascade in the T-cell lines
Jurkat and MOLT-4. Gal-1 and an Apo-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) induced DNA-
fragmentation in Jurkat T-cells whereas MOLT-4 cells were resistant. Gal-1 stimulated ...

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------


*1.Aminoacids are*
 a) building blocks of carbohydrates
b) building blocks of nucleic acids
 c) building blocks of lipids
d) building blocks of proteins
*2. Amino acids has*
 a) both amino group and carboxyl group
b) both amino group and keto group
c) amino group only
d) carboxyl group only
*3. The simplest amino acid is*
a) Proline
b) methionine
c) glycine
d) serine
*4. Which of the following amino acid is alpha-helix terminator
a) tryptophan
b) phenyl alnine
c) tyrosine
d) proline
*5. The first amino acid in a polypeptide chain is*
 a) Serine
b) Valine
c) Alanine
d) Methionine
*6. Which of the following amino acid has buffering capacity*
 a) Tryptophan
b) cysteine
c) histidine
d) arginine
*7. Which of the following is an imino acid*
a) serene
b) threonine
c) valine
d) proline
*8. The naturally occurring form of amino acid in proteins
* a) L-amino acids only
b) D-amino acids only
c) both L and D amino acids
d) none of these
*9. Sulphur containing amino acids are*
a) Cysteine and methionine
b) Methionine and threonine
c) Cysteine and threonine
d) Cysteine and serine
 *10. Aromatic amino acids include*
a) Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan
b) Phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan
c) Threonine, tyrosine and tryptophan
d) Asparagine, tyrosine and tryptophan
*11. Positively charged basic amino acids are*
 a) Lysine and arginine
 b) Lysine and asparagine
c) Glutamine and arginine
d) Lysine and glutamine
*12. Acidic amino acids include*
a) Arginine and glutamate
b) Aspartate and asparagine
c) Aspartate and lysine
d) Aspartate and glutamate
*13. Amino acids with hydroxyl groups are*
 a) serine and alanine
b) Alanine and valine
c) serine and threonine
d) Valine and isoleucine

*14. Absorbance at 280nm exhibited by protein is due to *
a) aliphatic amino acids
b) all amino acids
c) Non-polar amino acids
d) aromatic amino acids

* * *Answers* *

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------


*1*.*The most abundant bio molecule on the earth *
a) Nucleic acids
b) proteins
c) lipids
d) carbohydrates

*2. The major functions of carbohydrates
a) structural framework
b) storage
c) both a and b
d) none of these

*3. The general formula of carbohydrate is*
a) (CH2O)n
b) (C4H2O)n
c) (C6H2O)n
d) (C2H2O)n COOH

*4. Carbohydrates are *
a) polyhydroxy aldehydes and phenols
b) polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones
c) polyhydroxy ketones and phenols
d) polyhydroxy phenols and alcohols

*5. Structural polysaccharides include*
a) cellulose, hemicellulose and chitin
b) cellulose, starch and chitin
c) cellulose, starch and glycogen
d) cellulose, glycogen and chitin

*6. Nutritional polysaccharides are*
a) starch and glycogen
b) starch and chitin
c) starch and cellulose
d) starch and glucose

*7. Glycogen in animals are stored in  *
a) liver and spleen
b) liver and muscles
c) liver and bile
d) liver and adipose tissue

*8. Carbohydrates accounts*
a) 30% in plants and 20% in animals
b) 30% in plants and 10% in animals
c) 30% in plants and 1% in animals
d) 50% in plants and 50% in animals

*9. Smallest carbohydrates are trioses. Which of the following is a triose?*
a) glucose
b) ribulose
c) ribose
d) glyceraldehyde

*10. Which of the following is a reducing sugar
a) glucose
b) dihydroxyacetone
c) erythulose
d) none of these

*11. Oligosaccharides linked to proteins are called *
a) glycoproteins
b) glycolipids
c) galactosides
d) ganglioside

*12. In polysaccharides, monosaccharaides are joined by*
a) peptide bond
b) glucose bond
c) glycosidic bond
d) covalent bond

*13. Sucrose is a *
a) monosaccharide
b) disaccharide
c) polysaccharide
d) triose**

*14. Lactose is a disaccharide consists of*
a) glucose and fructose
b) glucose and galactose
c) glucose and sucrose
d) glucose and ribose

*15. In lactose, the linkage is*
a) β-1-4 linkage
b) β-1-2 linkage
c) α-1-4 linkage
d) α-1-2 linkage

*15. Maltose is a disaccharide consists of*

a) glucose and fructose
b) glucose and galactose
c) glucose and sucrose
d) glucose and glucose

*16. In maltose, the linkage is*
a) β-1-4 linkage
b) β-1-2 linkage
c) α-1-4 linkage
d) α-1-2 linkage

*17. Starch consists of *
a) unbranched amylose and branched amylopectin
b) branched amylose and branched amylopectin
c) unbranched amylose and unbranched amylopectin
d) none of these

*18. Cellulose is made up of repeating units of*
a) β-1-4 linkage between D-glucose units
b) β-1-2 linkage between D-glucose units
c) α-1-4 linkage between D-glucose units
d) α-1-2 linkage between D-glucose units

*19. Amylopectin has*
a) β-1-4 and β-1-6 linkage
b) β-1-2 linkage
c) α-1-4 and α-1-6 linkage
d) α-1-2 linkage

*20. Chitin consists of*
a) N-acetyl muramic acid
b) N-acetyl glucosamine
c) D-glucose units
d) N-acetyl muramic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine


------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------

Amino acids-ehab10f

Amino acids are a set of 20 different molecules used to build proteins. Proteins consist of one or more chains of amino acids called polypeptides. The sequence of the amino acid chain causes the polypeptide to fold into a shape that is biologically active. The amino acid sequences of proteins are encoded in the genes.
Amino acids
General Structure
Central carbon (Cα) attached to: 
       Hydrogen (H)
   Amino group (-NH2)
  Carboxyl group (-COOH)
     Side chain (R)

20 Different Amino Acids
20 Different amino acids
1. Enantiomers: The two non-super imposable mirror images. Molecules are classified as D form (Dextrorotatory ) and L (Laevorotatory) form  depending on whether they rotate the plane of plane –polarized light clock wise or anticlockwise.

2.  Naturally occurring amino acids are L (Laevorotatory) form

3. D-form aminoacids are rarely found in bacterial cell walls and certain antibiotics (Gramicidin-S, Polymyxin, Actinomycin-D and Valiomycin)

4.N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) is a D-aminoacid containing tetrapeptide.

5. Peptide bond: covalent bond formed between the α -amino group of one aminoacid and α -carboxylic group of other forming a -CO-NH- linkage.
Peptide bond

·     Example of condensation reaction
·     Exergonic
·    Rigid plannar
·   Tripeptide means: 3 aminoacids +2 peptide bond

6.         All aminoacids have high melting point more than 2000C.

7.         Soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in non-polar solvents

8.         Aminoacids can exist as ampholytes/Zwitter ions

9.Essential Amino acids:
Arginine(Arg/R), Histidine(His/H), Isoleucine (Ile/I), Leucine (Leu/L), Lysine (Lys/K), Methionine (Met/M), Phenylalanine (Phe/F), Threonine(Thr/T), Tryptophan (Trp/W), Valine (Val/V).

Memory tip:Any Help In Learning These Little Molecule Proves Truly Valuable.
This stands for Arginine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Threonine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Valine
10. Non Essential Amino acids:
11.     Histidine and Arginine are essential amino acids for infants but not healthy adults
12.     Cysteine and Tyrosine are considered to be semi-essential amino acids. They are required by premature infants and adults who are ill.

13.     Simplest amino acid: Glycine
An aminoacid without asymmetrical carbon atom

14.     Acidic aminoacids:    Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid
·                 Glutamic acid -Most common aminoacid undergo oxidative deamination

15.     Basic aminoacids:     Lysine and Arginine
·                 Arginine contain guanidium group
·                 Histones are rich in basic aminoacids
16.     Neutral aminoacids: Glycine, Valine and Phenylalanine

17.     Alcoholic aminoacid: Serine and Threonine

18.     Aromatic aminoacids Tryptophan, Tryrosine, Phenylalanine
·  Aromatic aminoacids absorb UV –light .This account for the characterization strong absorbance of light by most proteins at wavelength of 280 nm
·Tryrosine  forms skin pigment melanin and two hormones Adrenaline and Thyroxine

19.     Heterocyclic aminoacids: Tryptophan and Histidine
·        Tryptophan (Bulkiest amino acid) has indole ring
·   Tryptophan: precursor of IAA (Indole 3-acetic acid- plant hormone) and nicotinamide (a  β vitamin )
·        Amino acids with buffering activity-Histidine
·     Histidine :only aminoacid having an ionisable side chain with a pka near neutrality (pk value=6.1)
·      Buffering capacity of plasma proteins and haemoglobin is mainly due to Histidine residues
·    Histidine :more present in active site of an enzymes
·    Histidine contain imidazole group
·  Histidine found in intracellular and extracellular fluids of most animals and plants.

20.      Sulphur containing aminoacid –Cysteine, Methionine

21.      Aminoacids with amide group: Asparagine, Glutamine

22.      Proline (Secondary imino amino acid) is rarely found within alpha helix segments

23.      Selenocysteine: 21st aminoacid present in human protein.

24.     Un common aminoacids:
·   Collagen (A fibrous protein of connective tissue): 4 hydroxyproline,  5-hydroxyglycine.
·       Myosin (A contractile  protein of muscle):6-N Methyllysine
·   Prothrombin (Blood clotting protein):γ-carboxyglutamate

Ornithine and Citrulline are involved in the biosynthesis of Arginine and in the Urea cycle.

26.  Glutathione is a co enzyme of oxidation –reduction reactions which consist of glutamic acid, glycine and cysteine. This chemical is important in preventing oxidative damage to erythrocytes.

27. Aspartame(Nutrasweet) is artificial sweetner, synthetic dipeptide, chemically it is -L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine

28.      Neurotransmitters
·                 GABA (Gamma Amino Butryic Acid)-a derivative of glutamic acid
·                 Dopamine-derivative of tyrosine

29.     Histamine- histidine derivative, allergic reaction mediator

30.     Amino acids as  helix breakers- Proline-Glycine-Tyrosine-Asparagine

31.     Bend producing amino acid :Glycine-Proline -serine -Threonine

32.     Sickle cell haemoglobin differs from normal haemoglobin by a single amino acid. In the β chain of sickle cell haemoglobin ,a valine (a hydrophobic acid) has replaced a glutamic acid( a negatively charged amino acid)

33.     pI denotes isoelectric point/pH

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------