A. the epimeric center
C. an acetal
B. the glycosidic bond
D. the reducing end
8. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar because
A. It contains a free anomeric carbon and therefore cannot mutarotate.
B. It has a beta( -6) glycosidic linkage.
C. It gives rise to fructose and glucose upon hydrolysis.
D. It does not contain a free anomeric carbon atom.
9. Beta-D-glucopyranose behaves in its chemical properties like
A. an acetal B. a ketal
C. a hemiacetal D. an amine
10. Amylopectin, when hydrolyzed in the presence of a-amylase, yields
A. the greater solubility of amylose in water
B. differences in the molecular weights of amylose and amylopectin
C. the presence of more glucose units in the amylose molecule
D. the presence of substantial numbers of a-1-6linkages in amylopectin
14. Which of the following is NOT a major storage molecule for animal
15. The molecular formula for glucose is C6H1206. What would be the
together by dehydration synthesis?
A. C6oHl20060 B. (C6H1206)1O.
C. C6oH1020S1 D. C6oHlOOOSO.
16. Monosaccharides, such as ribose, fructose, glucose, and mannose differ
A. their sweetness B. the positions of their carbonyl groups.
C. their diastereomeric configurations. D. All
17. Boat and chair conformations are found
A. in pyranose sugars.
B. in furanose sugars.
C. in any sugar without axial-OH groups.
D. in any sugar without equatorial-OH groups.
18. Which of the following is an example of a storage polysaccharide made by animals?
A. Cellulose. B. Glycogen.
C. Collagen.D. Starch.
19. Cellulose, a b(1->4)-linked glucose polysaccharide, differs from starch in that starch is
A. A b(1->6)-linked manose polysaccharide
B. A b(1->6)-linked glucosL polysaccharide.
C. An a(1->6)-linked glucose polysaccharide.
D. An a(1->4)-linked glucose polysaccharide.
20. The glycosidic bond
A. joins glucose and fructose to form sucrose.
B. in maltose is not hydrolyzed in "lactose intolerant" humans.
C. in lactose is hydrolyzed by human infants to make two galactose.
21. Cellulose fibers resemble _ in proteins; whereas a-amylose is similar to
A. a-helices; b-sheets.
B. b-sheets; a-helices.
C. b-sheets; the hydrophobic core.
D. a-helices; b-turns.
22. The N-linked glycoproteins of eukaryotes usually have aN-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) attached to
A. a surface Asn residue.
B. a surface GIn residue.
C. a buried Asn residue.
D. the amino terminal 'residue.
23. The O-linked glycoproteins of eukaryotes usually have their sugar chains attached to
A. buried carbonyls in the protein backbone.
B. surface carbonyls in the protein backbone.
C. the OH of Ser or Thr residues.
D. the carboxyl terminal residue.
24. Starch is a polymer made from the following monomer
A. p-glucose B. a-glucose
C. a-fructose D. a-galactose
25. The products of hydrolysis of lactose are:
A. a-glucose and a-fructose B. a-glucose and a-galactose
C. a-fructose and a-galactose D. a-galactose and a-ribose
26. The type of bond that forms when a disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides is called:
A. A peptide bond B. A carbohydrate bond ,
C. An ester bond D. A glycosidic bond
27. The type of reaction that occurs when a disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides is
A. Addition B. Hydrolysis
C. Condensation D. Reduction
28. Which is the most important carbohydrate fuel in human cells?
A. Ribose B. Glucose
C. Galactose D. Fructose
29. Which two monosaccharides combine to form sucrose?
A. a-galactose and a-fructose B. a-fructose and a-ribose
B. a-glucose and p-glucose D. a-glucose and a-fructose
30. Aldoses are reducing sugars because in their non-cyclic form they contain:
A. A ketone group B. An ester group
C. An hydroxyl group D. An aldehyde group
31. Saccharides contain the following combination of elements:
A. carbon, hydrogen and phosphorus
B. carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen
C. carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
D. carbon and hydrogen
Complete each sentence or statement.
1. Sugars that differ only by the configuration at one C atom are ___ _
2. AI An ____ is any six-carbon sugar.
3. AI An consists of two opposing metabolic reactions that function
together to provide a control point for regulating metabolic flux.
Answer: futile cycle or substrate cycle
4. AI An is a sugar with the structure of an aldehyde.
5. AI An _ is the linkage between the anomeric carbon of a saccharide
and an alcohol or amine.
Answer: glycosidic bond
6. Pentose is a ____ carbon sugar.
7. The and stereoisomers of sugars refer to the configuration of
the asymmetric carbon atom from the aldehyde or ketone group.
8. A is formed when two monosaccharides become joined by
a glycosidic bond.
9. The groups of sugars can be replaced by other groups to form a
wide range of biologically important molecules including phosphorylated
sugars, amino sugars and nucleotides.
10. Lactose is a disaccharide formed between C-l of ______ and C-4 of
Answer: galactose, glucose
11. Long chains of monosaccharide joined together are collectively called
12. is a branched chain polysaccharide containing glucose re si dues
linked by a 1-4 bonds with a 1-6 branch point.
13. is a mixture of unbranched amylase and branched
14. consists of glucose residue linked mainly by a 1-6 bonds.
15. is a straight chain polymer of glucose units linked by p 1-4 bonds.
16. Short chains of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds are called
17. Commercially _____ is manufactured by the hydrogenation of
18. occurs in many terrestrial and marine plants.
19. is an excellent moisture conditioner and is used in
pharmaceutical preparations like elixirs and syrups.
____ acids are formed when aldoses are oxidized with nitric acid.
Answer: Aldaric or Saccharic
21. Oxidation of an aldose with bromine water at neutral pH converts the
aldehyde group to a group and resulted to form ____ _
Answer: carboxyl, aldonic acid
22. is commercially prepared from mannose and fructose.
23. sugar is found in milk.
24. sugar is stored as a reserve food supply in insect's hemolymph.
25. is a non-digestible fructosyl oligosaccharide found naturally in
more than 36,000 types of plants.
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true (T) or false (F).
1. The body's favorite energy supply is from protein.
2. Carbohydrates can be sugars, starches or fiber.
3. Whole-grain breads, cereals and pastas are good sources of carbohydrate.
4. Sugars that have three or more sugar molecules are called
5. The number of carbohydrate grams in a food can be found on the Nutrition Facts Label.
6. Sucrose is a reducing sugar.
7. Sugar found in human blood is glucose
8. Molisch reaction is a general test for carbohydrates
9. Iodine test for polysaccharides is a chemical reaction
10. The changes in specific rotation of an optically active solution without any
change in other properties is known as mutarotation.
11. Non carbohydrate protion of a glycoside is called aglycone.
12. Dextrose is the partially degraded breakdown products of starch.
13. Sucrose is called an invert sugar.
14. Carbohydrates that differ in their configuration around a specific carbon atom than the carbonyl carbon atom are called epimers.
15. Carbohydrates that differ only in their configuration around the carbonyl carbon atom are called anomers.
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