Sunday, October 28, 2012

proteins of plasma-2

1- Name the major proteins of plasma.
(Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen)
2-Name the transport proteins
(Albumin, Lipoproteins, Prealbumin, Transthyretin, Retinol Binding protein, Thyroxin binding Globulin)
3-How many copper atoms can bind to one molecule of ceruloplasmin?
4-What is A: G ratio, what is its range in the normal health?                  
(1.2:1 to 1.5:1)
5-What is the most significant sign of hypoproteinemia?
6-Almost all proteins except Globulins are synthesized in the liver, True or false?
7-Name the negative phase proteins
(Albumin, Transthyretin, Transferrin etc.)
8-What are the different types of light chains?
( Kappa and Lambda)
9-Which immunoglobulin is the major antibody of primary immune response
10-What is the function of the secretory piece of the IgA?
(It protects the antibody from proteolytic digestion)
11-What is the actual meaning of Fc and Fab ?
(These are the two portions of immunoglobulins produced after proteolytic cleavage of immunoglobulin. Fc denotes fragment crystallisable and Fab denotes antigen binding fragment)
12-Which form of Ig M – monomeric or polymeric acts as a receptor on the surface of B lymphocytes.
( Monomeric form)
13-Which form (Alpha helical, Beta pleated sheet or triple helical) predominates in the structure of collagen?                                    
(Triple helical)
14-What are the different types of heavy chains present in different types if immunoglobulins?
(α, β,γ,δ, Σ)
15-What types of globin chains  are present in Fetal Hemoglobin?
(Two alpha and 2 Gamma)
16-What is methaemoglobin?
( Hb in which iron is in the oxidized form(Ferric form )
17-25 % of the structure of hemoglobin is in the alpha helical form- state true or false?
(False- 75% is in the alpha helical form)
18-Name the beta globulins of biological significance
(Transferrin, Haemopexin, Complement etc)
19-What is the nature of ceruloplasmin?
(Alpha 2 globulin)
20-What is the function of Transferrin?
(Transfer of iron)
21-What is the function of fibrinogen?
(Blood clotting and viscosity)
22-What is the clinical significance of C- reactive protein ?
(Acute phase protein, activates complement, also helps in the formation of haem)
23-What is meant by opsonization?
(Coating the surface of antigen by antibodies)
24-What is the difference between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?
(Monoclonal means antibodies of only one specificity while polyclonal means antibodies of different specificities)
25-Hepato lenticular degeneration is observed due to deficiency of which plasma protein?
26-What is the function of complement protein ?
(These are defense molecules present in the plasma in the inactive form, required for pathogenic killing)
27-Enumerate the causes of hypo Albuminemia?
(Hypovolemia, mal nutrition, cirrhosis of liver, losses from the body ),
28-Give two causes of hyperproteinemia
(Hemoconcentration, malignancies, chronic infections)
29-What is class switching?
(The switch from one class of immunoglobulin to another class is called class switching)
30-How are the light chain and heavy chains linked together?
 ( By disulphide linkages)
31-What is the function of carbohydrate in the structure of immunoglobulins?
( It is required for the secretion of antibodies by the plasma calls)
32-Which antibody is called as the mucosal barrier?
( Ig A)
33-Which antibody is called as the Millionaire molecule?
 ( Ig M )
34-How is the rate of catabolism of Ig G affected by its serum concentration?
( It is a direct relationship, more the concentration more is the rate  of catabolism
 35- How many polypeptide chains are present in the structure of myoglobin?
36-Which out of the two (Myoglobin and hemoglobin) has more affinity for Oxygen?
37-Name two proteins that bind thyroid hormone
(Thyroxin binding protein and Transthyretin)
38-What will be the effect of excessive vomiting on plasma protein concentration ?
( It will result in hyperproteinemia due to hemoconcentration)
39-In a chronic alcoholic patient plasma protein concentration should be lower than normal or higher?
(Lower than normal)
40- What is the function of Transcobalamine?
(Transporter of B12)
41-What are Bence jone’s proteins?
These are light chain Immuno globulins excreted in the urine of a patient suffering from multiple myeloma.
 42- What are the clinical features observed in a patient of multiple myeloma ?
(Weight loss, punched out lesions, anemia , increased frequency of infections)
43-What are the component chains in HbA1?
( 2 alpha and 2 delta)
 44 What is the cause of emphysema in alpha 1 anti trypsin deficiency?
(Inactivated Elastase which causes damage to the lung tissues)

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------
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