Friday, October 26, 2012

Terms and Definitions

Description: structure of a protein
Description: string of amino acids
20 amino acids long
100-300 amino acids long
hooked by peptide bonds
Description: are the building blocks of protein?
1.Primary structure- sequence of amino acids.

2. secondary- bending of amino acids close to each other. ex Alpha- HELIX!*

3. Tertiary structure- bending and folding of amino acids that are far apart.: sheets, folds, globules**

4. Quarternary- functional form found in hemoglobin. bent inorder to transport hemoglobin
Description: can protein be denatured?
Description: cooking an egg
- sterilizing instruments
- high fever
Description: agents
Description: heat
- bases
- alcohol
- heavy metals
Description: nitrogen balance
Description: More nitrogen excreted than consumed
Description: nitrogen balance
Description: more nitrogen consumed than excreted
Description: reference protein, give ex
Description: against which all other proteins are measured
EGG= 100 biological value
Description: are Complete proteins: and where are they found?
Description: high quality proteins
- contain all 9 essential amino acids

found in: almost all animal products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, soy
Description: are incomplete proteins and where r they found
Description: low quality proteins
- lacking some essential amino acids or sufficient amounts

found in: Legumes, beans, peas, nuts, grains
Description: amino acid
Description: inadequate amount of a certain essential amino acid
Description: is the limited amino acid in corn?
Description: is the limited amino acid in beans?
Description: are the protein requirements for most people?
Description: of cal.
46-56 g/ day
2-3 servings/day
Description: energy malnutrition
Description: in protein and calories
Description: of Kwashiorkar
Description: of abdomen and face
-scaly, patchy skin.
-change in color and texture of hair
- decreased immune response
Description: of Marasmus
Description: appears old and shriveled
Description: effects of protein deficiency
Description: smaller teeth
- delayed eruption
- delayed exfoliation
- smaller mandible
- smaller salivary glands
Description: are the 4 types of vegetarian diets and what are they
Description: Vegan- strictest. only plants

2. Lactovegetarian- Plants and dairy products only,.

3. Ovovegetarian- Only plant products and eggs

4. Ovolactovegetarian- Eggs, dairy and plants!
Description: and how does it relate to vegetarianism
Description: protein sources to ensure adequte protein quality

- when eating together get all 9 essential amino acids that vegetarians may not be able to get easily
Description: is the role of vitamins in metabolic reactions
Description: for all metabolic reactions that use protein, fats, carbs
Description: factors increase vitamin requirements?
Description: alcohol
- drug use, oral contraceptive
- stress
- periods of rapid growth, surgery, burns
- illness
- fever
Description: is the most likely way a person get vitamin overdose?
Description: are fat soluble and water soluble vitamins absorbed?
Description: intestine
Description: soluble vitamins are transported via?
Description: system
Description: soluble vit are transported via?
Description: system
Description: are water soluble vitamins stored?
Description: nowhere, cant be stored. gets excreted in urine
Description: are fat soluble vitamins stored
Description: and other fatty tissues
Description: is a free radical
Description: unstable O2 with unpaired electron
- produced by all cells that use O2
- associated with production of cancer cells and effects of aging
Description: cell membrane damage
Description: do we want antioxidants in our diet?
Description: fights off free radicals
- slows down aging process
Description: does Vitamin E affect nitrites in cured meat?
Description: conversions of nitrites
Description: in Vit E is rare, what 2 groups may show deficiency?
Description: premature infants*
- those with Fat malabsortion syndrome*
Description: 3 compounds make vitamin K and where do we get them from
Description: K1: green leafy veg
- K2: microflora
- K3: synthetic supplements
Description: are the scorbutic changes that affect teeth from vitamin C deficiency?
Description: irregular dentin or lacking dentin
- enlarged pulp
- tooth loss, mobility, resorption of bone
Description: many B vitamins?
Description: are the B vitamins known as "energy- releasing vitamins"?
Description: they are enzymes and coenzymes during Krebs cycle-
- product ATP!
Description: B vitamins reach toxic level in body? why?
Description: because its a water soluble vitamin, excreted in urine, no storage
Description: are the basic characteristics of B vitamin deficiency?
Description: glossitis
- angular cheilosis
- dementia
Description: group of ppl are most likely to show deficiencies of B vitamins?
Description: alcoholics
Description: are the 2 steps in bone formation? which nutrients needed in each step
Description: Development of protein matrix: need Vitamins C, D, K, and protein

2. Mineralization of Collagen: need Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, *HYDROXYAPATITE
Description: are the 2 most abundant minerals in body, where are they found?
Description: MOST ABUNDANT! found in: bone, teeth, skull

Phosphorus: 2nd. found : 85% in skeleton, teeth
Description: 4 things enhance absorption of calcium?
Description: Vitamin D*
2. Phosphorus*
3. Hydrochloric Acid- in stomach*
4. Lactose*
Description: causes increase need for calcium?
Description: growth periods : 0-2 yrs old, puberty
- alcoholism
- smoking
- excess caffeine
- lactose intolerance
- menopause
- lack of exercise
Description: 2 hormones regulate serum calcium level? what are their roles
Description: Parathyroid hormone- INCREASES serum calcium

2. Calcitonin- DECREASES serum calcium
Description: is the relationship of calcium and phosphorus in blood?
Description: ratio should calcium and phosphorus be consumed?
Description: does osteoporosis occur?
Description: little calcium
Description: high in phosphorus are usually high in what 2 other nutrients?
Description:*CALCIUM AND PROTEIN!!!*!!
Description: food sources of Magnesium
Description: leafy vegetables
Antacids and laxatives!
- bananas
- whole grain products, nuts, seeds, beans
Description: functions of magnesium
Description: needed for healthy heart
2. needed for bone mineralizatio
3. Maintaining calcium balance
4. nerve transmission
Description: is part of what molecule?
Description: are the systemic actions of fluoride?
Description: replaces hydroxyl ions in Hydroxyapatite, results in FLUORAPATITE*
- more resistant to acid demineralization
- increases strength of bones
Description: action of fluoride
Description: inhibits acid demineralization
- promotes remineralization
- interferes with formation and function of acidogenic bacteria: STREP MUTANS and LACTOBACILLI!*
Description: of fluoride in our diet
Description: is recommended amount of fluoride in drinking water
Description: ppm (part per million)
Description: of mild fluorosis
Description: occurs at 2-3 ppm
- white, opaque flacks or extremely white enamel
- teeth are caries resistant
Description: of severe fluorosis
Description: occurs are 4 or more ppm
- brownish discoloration of teeth
- enamel pitting
Description: is most cost effective way to prevent caries?
Description: fluoride in water
Description: 4 methods of water loss
Description: RESPIRATION
2. EXPIRATION- from lungs and skin
3. urination
4. defecation
Description: of ADH
Description: help conserve water
- decrease urine output which increases fluid volume
Description: output is inhibited when ..?
Description: levels are too high
Description: of Aldosterone
Description: sodium and water retention
- causes B volume to increase due tro retention of water
Description: Volume Excess
Description: water
- due to increase sodium
- extracellular fluids
- caused by diuretics or sodium restricted diet
Description: Volume deficit
- excess loss of fluid from GI tract
- symptoms: weight loss, fatigue, confusion, low B/P, fissured tongue, xerostoma, poor fitting dentures
Description: electrolytes are present in intracellular fluid and which are in extracellular fluid?
Description: potassium (K+) Phosphate (PO3)

extracellular- Sodium (Na+) Chloride (CL-)
Description: electrolytes are positive
Description: and Sodium
Description: electrolytes are negative
Description: and Chloride
Description: and Potassium are important in what 2 things?
Description: is the max RDA for salt?
Description:,400mg/ day
Description: much sodium is present in 1tsp of salt?
Description: of deficiency of potassium
Description: anorexia
- muscle weakness
- cardiac/ respiratory arrest
Description: name for potassium deficiency
Description: of excess of potassium
Description: confusion
- muscle weakness
- cardiac arrest
Description: is chloride found in the body?
Description: secretions
Description: Iron
Description: found in animal products!
- easily absorbed
Description: heme Iron
Description: PLANTS & animal products!
- less well absorbed
Description: 2 things enhance iron absorption?
Description:**Vitamin C
-** HCL
Description: are some reasons for iron deficiency?
Description: *Overuse of antacids
2. *Decrease production of gastric acid
3. *lead poisoning
Description: deficiency anemia
Description: Microcytic hypochromic anemia
- world wide problem
symptoms: tachycardia, fatigue, headache, dizziness
Description:"Hereditary Hemochromatosis"
- Iron overload disease
- most common genetic disease in US (1:8)
- causes skin pigmentation
Description: of deficiency of Zinc?
- LOSS OF TASTE, SMELL, poor appetite, impaired wound healing
Description: hormone is Iodine a part of and what does it regulate?
Description: regulates BASAL METABOLIC RATE
Description: of iodine deficiency
Description: lower metabolic rate
- depression or mental functions
- Goiter
- Cretinism
Description: between Cretinism and Graves' disease
Description: is from DEFICIENCY of IODINE during fetal development

Graves' disease is from TOXICITY of IODINE

------------------------------------------ Best Wishes: Dr.Ehab Aboueladab, Tel:01007834123, ------------------------------------------
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